Signature morphoelectric properties of diverse GABAergic interneurons in the human neocortex
Human cortex transcriptomic studies have revealed a hierarchical organization of γ-aminobutyric acid–producing (GABAergic) neurons from subclasses to a high diversity of more granular types. Rapid GABAergic neuron viral genetic labeling plus Patch-seq (patch-clamp electrophysiology plus single-cell RNA sequencing) sampling in human brain slices was used to reliably target and analyze GABAergic neuron subclasses and individual transcriptomic types. This characterization elucidated transitions between PVALB and SST subclasses, revealed morphological heterogeneity within an abundant transcriptomic type, identified multiple spatially distinct types of the primate-specialized double bouquet cells (DBCs), and shed light on cellular differences between homologous mouse and human neocortical GABAergic neuron types. These results highlight the importance of multimodal phenotypic characterization for refinement of emerging transcriptomic cell type taxonomies and for understanding conserved and specialized cellular properties of human brain cell types.