Spatially resolved epigenomic profiling of single cells in complex tissues
The recent development of spatial omics methods has enabled single-cell profiling of the transcriptome and 3D genome organization with high spatial resolution. Expanding the repertoire of spatial omics tools, a spatially resolved single-cell epigenomics method will accelerate understanding of the spatial regulation of cell and tissue functions. Here, we report a method for spatially resolved epigenomic profiling of single cells using in situ tagmentation and transcription followed by multiplexed imaging. We demonstrated the ability to profile histone modifications marking active promoters, putative enhancers, and silent promoters in individual cells, and generated high-resolution spatial atlas of hundreds of active promoters and putative enhancers in embryonic and adult mouse brains. Our results suggested putative promoter-enhancer pairs and enhancer hubs regulating developmentally important genes. We envision this approach will be generally applicable to spatial profiling of epigenetic modifications and DNA-binding proteins, advancing our understanding of how gene expression is spatiotemporally regulated by the epigenome.