Multiplexed imaging of nucleome architectures in single cells of mammalian tissue
The three-dimensional architecture of the genome affects genomic functions. Multiple genome architectures at different length scales, including chromatin loops, domains, compartments, and lamina- and nucleolus-associated regions, have been discovered. However, how these structures are arranged in the same cell and how they are mutually correlated in different cell types in mammalian tissue are largely unknown. Here, we develop Multiplexed Imaging of Nucleome Architectures that measures multiscale chromatin folding, copy numbers of numerous RNA species, and associations of numerous genomic regions with nuclear lamina, nucleoli and surface of chromosomes in the same, single cells. We apply this method in mouse fetal liver, and identify de novo cell-type-specific chromatin architectures associated with gene expression, as well as cell-type-independent principles of chromatin organization. Polymer simulation shows that both intra-chromosomal self-associating interactions and extra-chromosomal interactions are necessary to establish the observed organization. Our results illustrate a multi-faceted picture and physical principles of chromatin organization.